Werke von August Sturm (German Edition)
August Stramm, Gesammelte Dichtungen, Bd. Max Verworn, Keltische Kunst. Mit Abbildungen , Herwarth Walden ed. Die Kunstwende , Adolf Loos, Ins Leere gesprochen, , Eine Gedichtsammlung aus den Jahren , . Gedichte , trans. Herwarth Walden, Im Geschweig der Liebe. Franz Zorn, Stempellieder. Gedichte eines Erwerbslosen , Aage von Kohl, Die rote Sonne , trans. Erste Austellung. Der Blaue Reiter.
Franz Flaum. Oskar Kokoschka. Expressionisten , Zweite Ausstellung: Die Futuristen. Umberto Boccioni, Carlo D. Deutsche Expressionisten , Erster deutscher Herbstsalon, Berlin , Marc Chagall , Potsdamer Ausstellung Expressionisten Kubisten , Category : Expressionism. Hidden category: Featured articles. Namespaces Page Discussion.
Friedrich was a bit less scholarly but more imaginative than his brother. Prone to bursts of enthusiasm, he articulated many of his most important ideas in short, epigrammatic essays, many of which were published in the Journal Anthenaem , which he edited with brother August and Ludwig Tieck. In one of these, he defined romanticism as a "progressive, universal poetry" that would synthesize all previous literary forms, including not only lyric and narrative prose but also criticism and humor.
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Friedrich Schlegel attempted to produce such a work with his novel Lucinde , written largely for his wife Dorothea Veit Schlegel, the daughter of the philosopher Moses Mendelssohn. Though the novel did not meet with a favorable critical reception, the sort of art Friedrich prophesized was to be created about a century later by authors such as Thomas Mann.
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Toward the end of his life, Friedrich turned to the study of Indian culture, and his Uber die Sprache und Weisheit der Indier On the Language and Wisdom of the Indians, , is sometimes cited as the beginning of comparative philology. Julius Caesar. Was Ihr Wollt. William Shakespeare. Sturm und Drang the conventional translation is "Storm and Stress"; a more literal translation, however, might be storm and urge , storm and longing , or storm and impulse is the name of a movement in German literature and music from the late s through the early s in which individual subjectivity and, in particular, extremes of emotion were given free expression in response to the confines of rationalism imposed by the Enlightenment and associated aesthetic movements.
The philosopher Johann Georg Hamann is considered to have provided the ideological basis of Sturm und Drang, and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was a notable proponent of the movement, though he and Friedrich Schiller ended their period of association with it, initiating what would become Weimar Classicism.
French Neoclassicism, a movement beginning in the early baroque , and its preoccupation with rational congruity, was the principle target of rebellion for authors who would be known as adherents to the Sturm und Drang movement.
The overt sentimentalism and need to project an objective, anti-personal characterization or image was at odds with the latent desire to express troubling personal emotions and an individual subjective perspective on reality. The ideals of rationalism , empiricism , and universalism traditionally associated with the Enlightenment were combated by an emerging notion that the reality constructed in the wake of this monumental change in values was not an adequate reflection of the human experience and that a revolutionary restatement was necessary to fully convey the extremes of inner pain and torment, and the reality that personal motivations consist of a balance between the pure and impure.
The term Sturm und Drang first appeared as the title to a play about the ongoing American Revolution by German author Friedrich Maximilian Klinger, published in , in which the author gives violent expression to difficult emotions and heralds individual expression and subjectivity over the natural order of rationalism.
Though it is argued that literature and music associated with Sturm und Drang predate this seminal work, it is this point at which historical analysis begins to outline a distinct aesthetic movement occurring between the late s through the early s of which German artists of the period were distinctly self-conscious.
Contrary to the dominant post-enlightenment literary movements of the time, this reaction, seemingly spontaneous in its appearance, came to be associated with a wide breadth of German authors and composers of the mid to late classical period.
Sturm Cigarette Company
Sturm und Drang came to be associated with literature or music aiming to frighten the audience or imbue them with extremes of emotion until the dispersal of the movement into Weimar Classicism and the eventual transition into early Romanticism where socio-political aims were incorporated these aims asserting unified values contrary to despotism and limitations on human freedom along with a religious treatment of all things natural.
An alternative perspective holds that the literary movement is inextricably linked to simultaneous developments in prose, poetry, and drama extending its direct influence throughout the German-speaking lands until the end of the eighteenth century. While this argument has some merits, it should be noted that the originators of the movement viewed it as a time of premature exuberance which was then abandoned in later years for often conflicting artistic pursuits. Kraftmensch existed as a precursor to Sturm und Drang among dramatists beginning with F.
Klinger, the expression of which is seen in the radical degree to which individuality need appeal to no outside force outside the self nor be tempered by rationalism. The most important contemporary document was the volume Von deutscher Art und Kunst.
Works from the Collection
The protagonist in a typical Sturm und Drang stage work, poem , or novel is driven to action not by pursuit of noble goals, but by baser motives, such as revenge and greed. Further, this action is often one of violence. Goethe 's unfinished Prometheus is a prime example. Common ambiguity is achieved by the interspersion of humanistic platitudes next to outbursts of irrationality.
Sturm, Julius 1816-1896
The story of hopeless and narcissistic love and eventual suicide described in Goethe 's sentimental novel The Sorrows of Young Werther is an example of the author's tempered introspection regarding his love and torment. The story of Werther struck such a chord with youth that numerous suicides in the manner of Werther were reported after its publication. Franz is portrayed as a villain attempting to cheat Karl out of his inheritance, though the motives for his action are complex and initiate a thorough investigation of good and evil.
Both of these works are seminal examples of Sturm und Drang in German literature.